TOP of Page

CLICK on the image to display webpage of aravamudhan:
Click on image for a website of Aravamudhan

   BIODATA                    CONTACT INFO
   Curriculum Vitae/Resume     webpages_list

Phone Mobile: +919862053872
Please download Java(tm).
For best view,display with:
zoom="100%"  :  text size="smallest"

Technical Education: North East

web counter
web counter Installed on May 19, 2011 with initial reading 'zero'

This article emphasizes factors influencing Science popularization activities and criteria for the proper impact

This article emphasizes factors influencing Science popularization activities and criteria for the proper impact
This article is a contribution to the "Felicitation Volume in Honour of Dr. Basudev Datta Ray The Secretary, North East India Council for Social Science Research"
Edited by P.M.Passah      Publisher: Akansha Publishing House, New Delhi: Year 2006; ISBN 81-8370-046-2

Click on Image to display the Webpage with scanned pages of the felicitation Volume
Link for Webpages with Scanned pages of the Book:
Aravamudhan's Article is:  HERE

In a Developing Environment; Imparting the Capability to Learn and Absorb the Currently fast-Progressing Advances in Science and technology
An article in IGNOU Publication: IJOP_Vol19_No2_p73-85_484.pdf  TITLE: How Non-Content Related Forums Influence Social Presence in the Online Learning Environment
JUMP down to A VIDEO of presentation file on E-Learning

Department of chemistry
NEHU Campus
North Eastern Hill University


In the context of a Developing (section 2) region it is important to know whether what is required (section 3) to be provided is resources in kind or currency. If it is a question of provisions in resources in the form of materials, the supply of communication equipment for import into the region seems to be the main and popular option giving all the people a consolation of ?Aiding? and also being ?Aided?. This is a point which can be debated at length whether, providing amenities in their home can bring them a durable comfort and, is it a development strategy (section 4) which eventually make them self-reliant. People who find the instantaneous conveniences could be the everlasting solutions would stoutly support these measures. On the other hand aiding financially requires that there are proper investment strategies, which requires that the recipients be literate and educated. The simpletons would staunchly support this approach on the basis of the fact that imparting education may not be as expensive and literacy levels can be increased at much less cost and does not require much of technological know-how. True that the progress in this approach can be a durable asset and improve the human-resource potentials. But this approach alone cannot bring forth the required regional Industrial Growth. And, it is the triangular considerations (section 5) of this type which become the concerns of Social Scientists who want to provide a strategy to usher in prosperity in the region and how to scale this prosperity index in terms of affluence and abundance indices is in general a global concern.


Industrial growth in a developing region is a sign of progress towards prosperity. Since it is possible to pick-out and adapt well established Industrial processes, what remains to be learnt by the inhabitants of the region is to mould their ways of living to adapt the technological means without compromising on the scientific factors locally prevailing which are creditable for the congeniality of local environment.

When the development process is considered it is necessary that the progress of development be monitored by the improvements of the individuals. This means a given individual must improve in his capability to requisition what he has to acquire and be in possession so as to make the minimization, of material dependence on other individuals, and, also, of the necessity for physical assistance from others. This would invariably require learning as to what is it that would be better if it is shared with others for economy and convenience, and, what is it that should be the concern of an individual entirely. This is the strategy of individual improvement, which suggests measures to enhance literacy levels and means of higher education. Such knowledge comes to be within the grasp when movements inspired by involuntary inferences of individuals from their experiences govern these. These developmental movements cannot be directed movements.

On the other hand what would be required, for the retention by each and every individual, to facilitate better cohesion among those who are disposed to be living together and wish not to be in isolated groups, is quick supply of manufactured goods. This brings in the question of the feasibility of manufacture and availability. This is the part of industrial concerns and this growth would require, for development, directed movements of individuals who are supposed to be the beneficiaries. This is the part that which is mostly addressed to while aiding developmental needs since, a speedy transformation in the surroundings is a tangible outcome.


The above requires the environmental awareness in the scientific perspective, and, for this, what one can simply import as manufactured materials must also be supported by required literacy level of the public and the provision for the transfer of knowledge about the industrial viability.

Hence if the tailor-made technical goods can be imported, it may not be possible to sustain the (improvements) growth without a provision for teaching the elements of Science and Technology which make-up the importable finished product. If the learning processes do not progress concomitantly with the possible use of materials, then, without such a back-up knowledge, in the long-run it leads to the ways of living regimented by whatever was convenient in the earlier days. But, the present state of growth, can set-in such a motion which is not conducive to stop and monitor for assessing the growth.


This problem is even more acute in a context when the resources are not much in abundance and there are no viability to develop transport facilities to base an industrial production, but, on the other hand, technological products as equipment?s are brought in as facilities which remain only as a mere opportunistic amenities. And, there is not much scope for teaching/learning process to become relevant and vibrant, but such efforts lead only to peripheral terminology circulation with inflationary amenities abound. The technological equipment thus brought in eventually would provide merely an exhibition-stall display recording perfunctory utilization. Such academic concerns point out the relevance of approaches cited in the two references:
1) Use of Academic Resources of Colleges for Quality and Equity. University News, 40 (35), Page 8,Sept.2-8, 2002.

2) Preparing Teachers as Researchers in Courses on Methods of teaching Sciences. Journal of research in Teaching science, 35,No: 7, 791-809 (1998).


It is probably necessary to appreciate that development should be comprising of more of the movements guided by Phenomena. ?A phenomenon is usually characterized by individuals? experiences, which are directly apprehended by senses, for which the causes are no criteria at the instance of occurrence?. Letting them remain to be phenomenal, renders it to border on mere empirical observations which cannot provide a basis for sustainability and economic accountability. These remain merely objective-source experiences of individuals and the inferences (that remain highly subjective to that particular individual and) which can not be much educative for collective appreciation. And, even if such inferences (as they are attributable to a specific individual only) do provide a measure for regulations, these would be prone to be arbitrary and hence can cause inconveniences.

But such an individual?s dependence on objective sources must be channeled as inferences resulting in the comprehension of the causes behind so that the totality of this phenomena results in an objective body of information which becomes amenable to be applicable for the collective endeavor- [at this point it is necessary to reiterate that, even when a surrounding is convenient, ?why is it so convenient?? must be answered and understood, or else the same surrounding might prove eventually inconvenient and at that time it would have already become a path of no return to the earlier or anything better]. It is this part which is subtler and requires eventually a self-regulation of movements along with the phenomenal exposure to the environment. It essentially implies higher cognitive levels, and growth of civilization concomitant with the material benefits, which accrue from Industrial growth.

If it so happens that, just for the reasons of better exposures, the surrounding is rendered abound with imported equipment, the subtler components of development (which are what that make the human civilizations ?possible?) would not be enhanced and the individuals become more constrained with the occurrences from objective sources without having the necessity to comprehend natural phenomena. What is traditionally a fear of nature, becomes customarily convenient, and eventually regimented ways of living. A balanced approach is what should be prescribed or made available as an avenue for progress of growth and development. Hence where traditional practices, though are prevailing because of its only known limited advantages, must be well scrutinized and people must be made to appreciate more of phenomena instead of simply preserving objects for the upholding of the traditional experiences. Simply bringing in peripheral industrial outputs extraneously and getting the inhabitants used to the only ?black-box? approaches would not make the individuals any better but collectively there would be a euphoria prevailing because things appear familiar to what appearances are common place in developed environments.


Current managerial and decision-making tools use extensive varieties of standardized questionnaires to gather data (information) for analysis and can provide necessary monitoring tools. These FORMS and TEMPLATES become conveniently transferable among a certain strata and more or less stand-up on a global footing. But in cases of severe constraints, the same tools must be applied with drastic modifications in the FORMS and TEMPLATES to be useful locally.

Hence to exercise choice on the kind of Aiding strategy, and, identifying and upholding the necessary balances required to sustain the developmental activities, is all what determines the contents in the policy drafts and extents in the reach of the plan proposals.
This requires the annually periodic deliberations reinforcing the findings in successive deliberations and an effort to find methods of how to incorporate the outcomes of the deliberation at the implementation stages. Both directed movements and the phenomenal inferences must form part of the developmental strategy.
Thus individuals? independence to acquire as much phenomenal exposure as one can encounter must be duly transforming into regulated movements as a consequence of the comprehension possible on the occurring events. Even without determining any specific welfare targets, such a conscious way of living only can bring about the required improvement in individuals and development of the environment.

For the benefit of those who wish to intensify their awareness on the matters of growth and development, the following references are cited for freading further:

I. Proceedings Volume of the ?National Conference and Exhibition on Development of Science and Technology in the Last 50 years in India with Special Reference to North East India ? held in Shillong College, Shillong during May 27-30,1998. (a). Technical session IV, Article 53 on page 371 by HWT Syiem, Chief Secretary, Governement of Meghalaya (b). Technical session IV, Article 54, ?Science and Technology Scenario of Assam in the last 50 year?, by KC Deka An excerpt from I(a) cited above: ? Much has been said about the need for social and and economic development of the region and the implications of various approaches. It is also importatnt that there should be development in the minds of the people. What is necessary is an open mind and realisation that there is a need to change the attitudes and thinking process? This essentially necessitates and integrated approach while evolving a curriculum for education and in an NCERT deliberations on curriculum development and eduaction this aspect is what is probably referred to as EMOTIONAL ILLETERACY ! The critical thinking capability is not easily possessed, by which a person acquires the art of thinking about one own thinking while the person himself is thinking in order to make his thinking better, more clear , more accurate or more defensible.Paul R.(1992) ?Critical Thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world? (c) The necessary precautions required while reaching out for such changes are highlighted in the article by S.Aravamudhan entitled ?Man?s Uses of Science and Technology: Does it Upgrade or Downgrade the Human Environement? in the Proceedings Volume of ?The National Conference on Man, Pollution and Environment? held in Shillong College, Shillong during Jan15-16, 1999, on page 13. (d) While going through school and College Education, a way to get vocational and professional training in using and teaching with the advancing technological tools has been suggested by S.Aravamudhan in the article entitled ?Information Technology provides Innovative Tools for Improvising Teaching and Information transfer? in the proceedings volume of the ?National Conference and Workshop on the Role of Information Technology in the Development of India with Special Reference to North East region.? held in the Shillong college during November 2002, on page 49. Even more broad based references to use of IT Applications and Education appear in the same volume on page 21, in the text of the Key note Address by Dr.V.K.Dharmadhikari, Director General, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, New Delhi.

II. (a) For school and College Levels a Guide line (for how to shape one?s own thinking process on the nature of Scientific Methods) can be found in the First chapter ?Structure and Scope of Chemical Sciences? of the book on ?University College Chemistry? Edited by CNR Rao, publishers: MacMillan Press India Ltd. (b) A highly Informative practical guidebook for people who would like to build an aptitude for the Technological aspects of Renewable resources of Energy is ?Solar Energy: Principles of Thermal Collection and Storage? by SP Sukhatme . The following articles from the ?University News? Vol.XXXIV, No 6, Feb. 5,1996 could be useful for a broader appreciation of the specifically University Education: (c) ?Eliticism against Quality and Equality: A Critic of educational system in USA?,SP Punalekar, page 19. (d) ?TQM for Effective Educational Management?, Jayalakshmi Indiresan, page 33 (e) ?Implementation Strategies for Education in Human Values? page 71.

III. All the above require an effective cahnge to be caused which may be difficult to bring about particularly in a fastidiously tradition bound environment. The book entitled ?Effective Change: Twenty Ways to Make it Happen? by Andrew Leigh, University Press (1988) ISBN 81 7371 0309 is an Educative and Enterprising book on strategies, procedures and techniques to manage organisational development. Emphasis may be given to particularly the Chapter 7, ?Startegies for Handling Resistance to Change?.

IV. The Growth and Development can occur without much obtrusion and in an all-through congeniality only when it happens in conformity with the natuarl processes . The development of Human Embryo from the ovum to the child-birth seems to be the unique process which occurs by growing in confinement. Growth if we may understand as an increase in magnitude which manifests in quantitavely measurable in size and dimension and expressible numerically, then development can be the concomittant qualitative changes which is symptomatically describable and perceived by the extent of changes in quality, convenience and the resulting congeneality. These growth and / or developments could result in improvements or deterioration. It is all dependent upon what is growing and what is it that develops. The book entitled ?The Beginnings of Human life? is an excellent book on human embryology with a series of exquisite illustrations and pictures. With the purpose set out as to be educative on human embryology, the author Erich Blechschmidt has taken upon himself to explain in the book, annotatively at every stage of Embryo-development, in technical terms and simple words what in general characterises the Growth and Development process and at the given particular stage how and what to monitor to term it as growth and development. This book is among the ?Heidelberg Science library? series Published by Springer-Verlag New York ISBN 0 387 90249-x, Berlin-Heidelberg ISBN 3 540 90249-x (1977). The particular sections of this book as listed below vindicate the above assertions. (a) Teleological Thinking Led to Comparisons page 50 (b) Differentiations are Dierectional page 19 and the reading in the Preface to this book on Human Embryology ???how human ovum develops into a human embryoa nd further into a new born cannnot be deduced from anatomical examination of animals nor calculated by formulae?..?

V. Indian Holistic Experience and Analytical Rationality by Dr.Raja Ramanna in ?Art, Culture and Spirituality? compiled and edited by Swami Atmananda and Dr.M.Sivaramakrishna ISBN 81 7505 189 2(1997) Advaita Ashrama Publications Department. page 78.The particular reading as on page 89, the last paragraph wherein references are made to the processes of achieving order from chaos could be revealing as to whether the reductionistic approach of recognizing patterns from a total ensemble could be Growth if it is a development. i.e., ?the blossoming up of Reality from initial chaos?. Thus in embryology even if the start is with a single ovum into multitude of cells , the existence of the possibility of even graeater multitude than what actually organizes itself must be taken cognizance of ?! How and where one gets the beginning for the process of recognizing patterns?

VI. Revealing conversation with eminent personalities on the topics related to Technology, Development and Environment are reported in the book entitled ?Uncommon Wisdom? by Fritjof Capra, published by Flamingo-An imprint of Harper Collins Publishers London W6 85B (1998)

VII.Aid and Influence: Do Donors Help or Hinder? book ISBN 10: 1-84407-201, ISBN 13: 978-1-84407-201-9 by Stephen Browne, a Director at the UN, First published by EARTHSCAN in UK and USA, Copy right: year 2006 Stephen browne Particular page: 44 of Chapter 4 on "Influence Through Conditionality" Section: 'The importance of the policy environment' ------The text of the paragraph 3 on page -44 :---
The inconsistency between project results and development performance has been described ?micro-macro paradox?. Partly, the contrast is due to a failure to replicate and scale up projects?.
But mainly, the macro successor failure is the result of policy environment rather than the summation of micro development initiatives. The problem is that, where policy-based aid has been applied, the policy environment in recipient countries, and wider reform process in general, have proved to be relatively impervious to outside influence

A VIDEO of presentation file on E-Learning

Link to an article in IGNOU Journal:  IJOP_Vol19_No3_p73-143_147.pdf TITLE:Learners’ Perception towards Information and Communication Technologies: A Case Study of Indira Gandhi National Open University Jump to TOP of Page